Mari A. Smultea
 
Last update: September 2013
 

e-mail: msmultea(at)gmail.com

 

 

Introduction

I started as a PhD candidate in the Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Marine Biology at Texas A&M University at Galveston in Spring 2012.  Bernd Würsig is my primary advisor.  I decided I needed/wanted my PhD 20 years after completing my Master’s of Science with Bernd at Texas A&M in Wildlife & Fisheries Sciences (as his first graduate student there at the time).  My thesis was Habitat Selection of Humpback Whales off West Hawaii (focusing on cows and calves).  My current dissertation compares the behavioral ecology of cetaceans based relative to the risks and rewards of group living and habitat resources in the Southern California Bight, using data collected from a small aircraft. One of my PhD chapters focuses in particular on the focal behavior of Risso's dolphins based on video collected while circling from the aircraft.  (ahhh, but it’s so hard to pick just ONE thing!!! J). 

I love what I do and can’t believe I have been paid to do it for the last two decades, and can’t believe I’m giving up full-time work in this economy to get my PhD (yes I can! I want to learn MORE!).

 

Specialties/Experience

I have specialized in studying the effects of human-related activities primarily on marine mammal/sea turtle ecology and behavior, but also other marine and terrestrial animals, particularly endangered species (e.g., wolves, bears, salamanders, spotted owl, marbled murrelet…).

I have managed my own small environmental consulting business, Smultea Environmental Sciences (SES), since 2000 (before that I worked as an environmental consultant for various consulting firms in the Seattle area mostly).

I have accumulated >15,000 hr of field experience designing/conducting/analyzing aerial/vessel/passive acoustic monitoring/land-based surveys, much in the Pacific Ocean particularly Hawaii, Alaska, Arctic, the US W Coast and Okinawa but also Australia, New Zealand, Greenland, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic, Caribbean and Antarctica.

I have concentrated on assessing the effects of underwater sound on marine animal behavior and ecology.  I have extensive experience in permitting, NEPA, ESA and MMPA regulations, agency consultation, habitat management/ enhancement, and mitigation/monitoring involving Navy exercises/activities, marine academic seismic geophysical studies, offshore natural gas/oil exploration/operations, energy licensing/permitting/development, marine hazardous waste clean-up, pier construction, coastal development, marine/riverine transportation, etc.

I have published 17 scientific articles (more on the “to do list”), presented numerous papers at conferences, and served on various management boards and committees involving marine mammal management.

 

Other Interests

In my “spare” time, I compete on my Arabian-cross pinto horse mare “Aspen” in endurance riding throughout the Pacific NW by riding up to 100 miles in 24 hr on mountain trails with my 2 teenage daughters, my partner Dave, and my friends.  I LOVE animals and have a small farm complete with 3 other horses, 1 goat (found him as a stray in the middle of the road), 5.5 dogs, 2 cats, 2 chickens, 2 ducks, 14 guinea hens, 1 parakeet, 2 finches, 9 fish, did I forget anybody? Thank goodness for good pet sitters because I also LOVE to travel and explore….

 

Education

1991 — M.Sc., Wildlife & Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University. Thesis: Habitat Selection of Humpback Whales off the Big Island of Hawaii.
1985 — B.A. Human Ecology & American Politics, Connecticut College
1983-84 — Junior Year Abroad, University of Geneva, Switzerland
1979-1988 — Coursework: Humboldt State Univ/CA; College of the Redwoods/CA; Univ. Massachusetts/MA; Smith College/MA; Cabrillo College/CA; Moss Landing Marine Lab/San Jose State Univ/CA

 

Trainings/Certifications

Passive Acoustic Monitoring Training for Marine Mammals (2013; with Bio-Waves)
Aviation Safety & Egress Dunker Training/NOAA/NMFS (2009)
Introductory Flight Course for Pilots (2009)
Marine Survival Training (2006)
Cold Water Survival Training (2006)
Wilderness First Aid (2009)
Certified Habitat Evaluation Procedure, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Certified Marbled Murrelet and Gray Wolf Surveyor
Certified SCUBA

 

Awards

Best Student Spoken Presentation & Travel Award, European Cetacean Society Conference, Setubal, Portugal, April 2013

Conference Travel Award, Texas A&M University at Galveston, Marine Mammal Behavioral Ecology Group

2013-2014 SeaSpace, Inc., Scholarship, Texas A&M University at Galveston

 

Professional Affiliations

Society for Marine Mammalogy
American Cetacean Society (former National Conservation Chair & Board Member, Seattle chapter VP)
Acoustical Society of America

 

MARINE PROJECT EXPERIENCE

TGS 2-D Seismic Program, Chukchi Sea, Alaska 2013 / ASRC Energy Services, AES, Anchorage, AK. (Oct 2012-present). As arctic marine mammal specialist, wrote Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) application to NMFS on behalf of client addressing potential impacts to marine mammals, including bowhead, beluga and gray whales and ringed, bearded and spotted seals and calculated estimated potential exposures to seismic sound.  Reviewed/assisted in Letter of Authorization (LOA) submission to US FWS addressing potential impacts to polar bears and walruses.  Includes Marine Mammal Monitoring and Mitigation Plan. Presented related information at 8 Inupiat North Slope communities, to the NMFS Open Water Panel, and at the 2013 NMFS Annual Open Water Meeting.  Involved assessing and implementing effective mitigation and monitoring options, including passive acoustic monitoring and custom-made observation and mapping software.  

Aerial Surveys and Analysis of Habitat Use Patterns of Cook Inlet Beluga Whales, Anchorage, Alaska / Apache Corporation, Anchorage, AK.  (Spring-Fall 2013).  Contracted to design, manage and lead aerial surveys and analyze distribution and occurrence patterns for federally Endangered beluga whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska, to document their seasonal and geographical occurrence, distribution and numbers in northern Cook Inlet.  Includes managing contract, budget, and staff and communications with client.  Includes use of Mysticetus software to collect, summarize and map survey data within 1-2 hr after each survey.

Aerial Survey Monitoring of Marine Mammals in Conjunction with US Navy Major Training Exercises, Southern California Range Complex, San Diego, CA, US Navy, for NAVFAC Pacific, Pearl Harbor, HI. (Oct 2008-present). Contracted by the Navy, and HDR, Inc., to design, direct and implement 18 aerial surveys to monitor marine mammal behavior, occurrence and distribution relative to naval training exercise involving mid-frequency active sonar use. Managed entire project, staff, budget, data analyses, and reports. Navy has used database format we developed as protocol for all other vessel & aerial monitoring surveys in US Navy ranges, including the software data collection, analysis, mapping and reporting program Mysticetus (www.Mysticetus.com). Initiated, developed and applied to multiple species the use of video from aircraft to monitor behavior of marine mammals based on protocol developed by B. Würsig and W.R. Richardson for bowhead whales in the Arctic.

Estimating Density and Abundance of Marine Mammals during Winter 2011 Aerial Survey Monitoring of Marine Mammals on Behalf of the US Navy, Southern California Range Complex, San Diego, CA.  (2010-2011). As result of unsolicited proposal from M. Smultea to the US Navy, as part-time employee to HDR, Inc., managed and lead team of scientists in the data analyses and journal manuscript preparation to estimate density and abundance of marine mammals based on data from 4 line-transect aerial surveys in the Southern California Range Complex during winter 2011.  Also involved organizing, formatting and uploading data to publicly accessed database, OBIS-SEAMAP (http://seamap.env.duke.edu/).

Marine Mammal Monitoring for the U.S. Navy’s Hawaii Range Complex and Southern California Range Complex- Annual Report 2011, Department of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Fleet. (2011). As part-time employee to HDR, Inc., served as lead scientist and editor on compilation of all US Navy-funded marine mammal and sea turtle monitoring activities conducted on the Hawaiian and Southern California Range complexes during Fiscal Year 2011, including passive acoustic monitoring and aerial and vessel-based surveys. Involved managing staff assigned with gathering and synthesizing reports and data from multiple scientific institutions and scientists and compiling them into an annual report the National Marine Fisheries Service on behalf of the US Navy.

Estimating Density and Abundance and Quantifying Behavior of Marine Mammals during 2008-2010 Aerial Survey Monitoring of Marine Mammals on Behalf of the US Navy, Southern California Range Complex, San Diego, CA.  (2010-2011). M Smultea/SES submitted to and was awarded an unsolicited proposal from the US Navy to (1) estimate abundance and density based on 8 aerial surveys directed by SES/M. Smultea off San Diego 2008-2010; included preparation of draft journal manuscript (2) quantify and present in draft manuscript a summary of marine mammal behavior as observed from aerial survey aircraft; (3) organize, format and upload data from the 8 aerial surveys to publicly accessed database, OBIS-SEAMAP (http://seamap.env.duke.edu/); (4) prepare and submit journal manuscript on rare sightings of Bryde’s whales off Southern California; manuscript accepted for publication October 2011. All 3 manuscripts included in Navy’s 2011 Annual Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service (available at NMFS OPR website in fall 2011).

Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Monitoring Video During Navy Training Events in the US Navy’s Hawaiian Range Complex and the Southern California Range Complex, US Navy, NAVFAC Pacific, Pearl Harbor, HI. (2010-2011). M Smultea/SES submitted to and was awarded an unsolicited proposal from the US Navy to identify, archive, transcribe, summarize, and write summary report video of marine mammals taken during 8 aerial surveys lead by M. Smultea in Hawaii and southern California 2008-2009. These data are planned to be used by Navy personnel for post-survey correlation of animal movements with security-level received sonar level sounds and locations data from the Navy training events. Report included in Navy’s 2011 Annual Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service (available at NMFS OPR website in fall 2011).

Programmatic EIS/OEIS for National Science Foundation-Funded Marine Seismic Research Program, National Science Foundation. (2005-2010). As Assist. Project Manager and Lead Marine Mammal/ Sea Turtle Biologist for LGL Ltd., responsible for assessing effects of underwater seismic and sonar sounds and related activities for 15 research-related marine seismic programs in all major world oceans. Involves managing all natural resource chapters (invertebrates, fish, seabirds, etc.) and assimilating best available data on marine mammal and sea turtle distribution, occurrence, habitat use, and effects of seismic and sonar sounds. Requires regular involvement in team planning/technical meetings and NSF and NMFS personnel, and public scoping and hearing meetings. Final product is large and complex EIS/OEIS, the first of its kind addressing programmatic and cumulative effects of seismic activities on a long-term global-ocean basis.

Review of NMFS Letter of Authorization for Proposed Construction of the Knik Arm Bridge Relative to the Endangered Cook Inlet Beluga Whale, Anchorage, AK (2009-2010). Contracted by HDR/e2m as marine mammal/beluga LOA specialist to review and advise a request for permit to incidentally harass belugas during construction and operation of a proposed bridge across Knik Arm, Anchorage.

Pt. Thompson EIS for Exxon’s Proposed Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Beaufort Sea, AK. (2009-2011). Contracted by HDR/e2m Anchorage as Arctic Marine Mammal Specialist to assist in preparation of an environmental impact assessment to address effects of construction and operation off offshore marine seismic operations on marine mammals near Pt. Thompson, AK. Responsible for analyzing and writing the marine mammal sections, including polar bears.

Review and Compilation of Systematic Surveys of Bowhead Whales in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, National Marine Fisheries Service/National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Seattle, WA. (2008-2011). Sole-sourced as Director of Smultea Environmental Sciences to conduct extensive review of published and unpublished literature/studies on vessel, aerial and shore-based surveys of bowhead whales in US arctic waters relative to MMS/NOAA Bowhead Feeding Study to assess effects of global warming on bowheads and their habitat. Invited to orally present results at annual Arctic conference and publish in bi-annual program report to MMS by NMML. NMFS POC Dave Rugh. Data to be presented at 2010 Arctic Marine Symposium Conference, Anchorage, AK, Jan 2010.

Biological Assessment to Evaluate Effects of Wastewater Discharge on the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale, Anchorage Water and Wastewater Utilities, Anchorage, AK. (Sept 09-present). Contracted by CH2M Hill as Lead Marine Mammal Specialist/SES to assess potential effects of renewal of EPA 301 wastewater discharge permit on the Cook Inlet endangered beluga whale. Involves development of toxicology model to assess potential effects of contaminants on belugas and their prey and habitat including NMFS-Designated Critical Habitat. Involves consultation with NMFS and EPA.

Aerial Survey Monitoring of Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles in Conjunction with US Navy Major Training Exercises, Hawaiian Range Complex, US Navy, NAVFAC Pacific, Pearl Harbor, HI. (Aug 2008; Feb, June, Aug 2009). As co-PI with Dr. Joe Mobley of MMRC, designed, lead, and managed field team, managed all data analyses, and first-or second-authored reports for four aerial surveys to monitor marine mammal and sea turtle behavior, occurrence and distribution relative to naval training exercises involving mid-frequency active sonar near Kauai and Oahu, HI.

Vessel-based Marine Mammal Monitoring during RIMPAC Exercise, NAVFAC Pacific, U.S. Navy, EV3 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI. (July 2008). As Principal Scientist with SES, subcontracted by Marine Mammal Research Consultants to design and lead field project, data analyses, and report writing for vessel-based visual monitoring survey for marine mammals and sea turtles from aboard the M/V Searcher near Kauai and Niihau to assess their distribution and behavior relative to potential effects of US Navy RIMPAC training exercise involving mid-frequency sonar. Conducted data analyses and wrote report.

NAVFAC Pacific, U.S. Navy, EV3 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI. (Fall 2007).
As SES Principal Scientist, contracted by Cetos Research to design and lead field project, data analyses, and report writing for vessel-based visual survey off Oahu to monitor the behavior and distribution of marine mammals and sea turtles relative to Navy exercises involving mid-frequency sonar. Conducted from aboard the M/V Searcher.

USWEX Hawaii Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan, NAVFAC Pacific, U.S. Navy, EV3 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI. (2006-2007). As Independent Marine Mammal Expert subcontracted by LGL in SRS contract to review several drafts of NAVFAC US Navy Undersea Warfare Exercise (USWEX) Endangered/Threatened Marine Species Monitoring Plan for the Hawaii Range Complex (HRC).

NAVFAC Pacific, U.S. Navy, EV3 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI. (Winter 2007).
As Principal Scientist/SES as subcontractor to Cetos Research, designed and lead field project, data analyses, and report writing for vessel-based visual monitoring survey for marine mammals in Alenuihaha Channel and N Island of Hawaii to assess baseline distribution and behavior of marine mammals from aboard the R/V Dariabar relative to potential effects of naval exercises involving mid-frequency sonar. Conducted data analyses and wrote reports.

Review of the Effects of Marine Seismic Activities and Other Underwater Sound on Sea Turtles (Spring 2009-present). Contracted by LGL, King City, Ontario, Canada, to review, revise and update general appendix on effects of seismic and other underwater sounds on endangered sea turtles. This appendix used for multiple Environmental Assessments and NMFS IHA applications for marine academic seismic surveys throughout the world on behalf of National Science Foundation-funded geophysical research programs conducted from aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth.

Veritas DGC Land & Shell Offshore, Inc., Nuiksut Public Meeting for IHA Application for the Non-lethal Taking of Seals in Conjunction with a Proposed On-ice Marine Geophysical (Seismic) Program in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, During 2008. (October 2007). Subcontracted as Expert Marine Mammal Biologist to attend a public meeting at the native village of Nuiksut on behalf of Shell Offshore Inc., to address public comments on marine mammals relative to proposed on-ice seismic operations in the Beaufort Sea.

Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Monitoring and Mitigation Programs for Marine Seismic Studies aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing. (2003-2008). Field and Report Team Leader for LGL Ltd. for Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (L-DEO) and National Science Foundation (NSF), for visual and passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammals and sea turtles. Implemented mitigation measures for 3 academic seismic studies in NE & central tropical Pacific and Caribbean involving projection of seismic and sonar sounds. Prepared associated and 4 additional EAs, Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) Applications and 90-day Reports for submission to NMFS.

Undisclosed private client, US Gulf of Mexico. (February 2009). Contracted by LGL Ltd. to conduct feasibility assessment of marine mammal issues and regulations involved with offshore oil exploration activity relative to marine mammal effects in Gulf of Mexico for private client.

ConocoPhillips, Spring and Fall Marine Mammal Monitoring Program for the Conoco-Phillips Beluga River Seismic Operations in Cook Inlet, AK. (Spring and Fall 2007). For CGGVeritas managed marine mammal observer team, interpreted/implemented IHA permit requiring mitigation/monitoring to assess effects of offshore natural gas exploration on beluga whales, harbor seals, and other marine mammals from two large vessels and a helicopter. Responsible for daily sighting/ compliance reports for NMFS and clients.

US Navy, Biological Assessment, Construction of Containment Berm, Barrow, AK. (1998). As task manager for TetraTech Environmental, prepared Biological Assessment evaluating potential impacts on seals, polar bears, and seabirds/waterfowl from remedial action clean-up and construction of a containment berm in Barrow, Alaska. Consulted with NMFS, FWS, ADFG.
 
CGG Veritas, IHA Application Request for Incidental Taking of Ringed Seals during On-Ice Seismic Operations in the Beaufort Sea, March-May 2009. (Sept 2008). Conducted literature review and edited and updated IHA application relative to potential impacts on marine mammals during proposed seismic operations in the Beaufort Sea.

ATOC Study, HI. (1993-1994, 1997, 1998). Field Director and Task Manager for Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute and Cornell University to assess baseline behavior and distribution of humpback whales from shore near Kauai, HI, including relative to vessels. Study designed to monitor humpback whale and other marine mammal the responses to underwater low-frequency sonar sounds of ATOC global warming study conducted by Scripp’s Institute of Oceanography. Conducted associated aerial surveys off Kauai.

US Navy LWAD Tests, Marine Mammal Monitoring and Mitigation Programs. (2001-2002). For Marine Acoustics, Vessel Team Leader and Observer for visual and acoustics teams conducting ship-based monitoring and mitigation for marine mammals as required for projection of mid- and low-frequency underwater sonar sounds off Okinawa, Japan, Scotland, and N Atlantic for US Navy acoustic tests and exercises.

ATOC Heard Island Feasibility Test, Australian Antarctic. (1991) For Scripps’ Inst. Oceanography (SIO), NMFS, and US. Office of Naval Research, Lead Marine Mammal Behavior Biologist for Texas A&M Marine Mammal Research Program. Designed, implemented, collected, and analyzed vessel-based data on behavioral responses of marine mammals to low-frequency underwater sonar sounds used for ATOC feasibility test near Heard Island. One of the first scientific underwater sound projects required to meet NMFS mitigation requirements. Published results in journal.

Study of Acoustic Effects of Oil Production Activities on Bowhead and White Whales near Pt. Barrow, AK. (1989-1994). For LGL in MMS-funded study, organized, implemented, and analyzed ice-based study to assess acoustic effects of oil production activities by using underwater sound playbacks of icebreaker, offshore drilling noise on bowhead and beluga whales and ringed and bearded seals near Pt. Barrow, AK

Shell Western E&P Inc. and Chevron USA. Inc., Marine Mammal Monitoring Program, Chukchi Sea, AK. (1991-92). For Ebasco Envtl., observer from airplane & icebreaker vessel to assess distribution/behavior of walruses, polar bears, bowhead whales, and seals relative to offshore oil exploration activities and noise in the Chukchi Sea to meet NMFS and FWS mitigation requirements.

Western Geophysical Company, Marine Mammal Monitoring Program, Seismic Vessel Operations, Beaufort Sea, AK. (1992). For Ebasco Environmental, analyzed data and prepared report for NMFS and FWS on marine mammal monitoring program conducted in Beaufort Sea to assess offshore oil drilling effects.

BP Exploration and Western Geophysical EA for IHAs to Allow Incidental Take of Marine Mammals in Beaufort Sea During Seismic Exploration Programs.(1994-1995). For LGL, prepared Environmental Assessment & IHA Permit for marine mammals for nearshore open-water seismic exploration in Beaufort Sea.

University of Hawaii-West Oahu. (1993, 1994, 1998, 1999). Marine mammal observer for line-transect aerial surveys of Hawaiian Islands for Dr. J. Mobley. Surveys designed to assess cetacean abundance/ distribution including relative to US Navy LFA sonar and ATOC sonar sounds for monitoring program.

National Marine Fisheries Service/National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Delphinid Aerial Surveys in Oregon and Washington Offshore Waters, OR/WA. (1992-93). For Ebasco Envtl, surveyed marine mammals from airplane off OR and WA using line-transect technique to assess density/abundance of dolphins relative to impacts of incidental takes during fishing operations. Involved data analysis and report preparation.

National Marine Fisheries Service, Potential Impacts of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Humpback Whales, Southeast AK. (1989). Conducted population assessment of SE AK humpback whales after oil spill.

ESA Seminar Presentation to US Navy, Poulsbo, WA. (2003). For Foster Wheeler Envtl, managed, designed and implemented seminar presentation to US Navy, EFA Northwest, entitled “Endangered Species Act (ESA): Process and Issues, Emphasizing Listed Salmonids in Puget Sound” to educate project managers on ESA process regarding recently listed salmon species. Received high accolades and spot incentive award.

US Navy, Biological Assessment, Nearshore Confined Aquatic Disposal, Operable Unit B, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. (2000-2002). As task manager for TetraTech Environmental, prepared Biological Assessment evaluating potential impacts on salmonids and marine mammals from remedial action clean-up of shipyard involving construction of nearshore confined aquatic disposal site and shoreline enhancement for salmonids. Developed quantitative habitat model. Consulted with NMFS, FWS, WDFW.

Marine Mammal Commission (MMC), Principal Investigator, Hawaii. (1988-89). As project manager, determined distribution patterns of humpback whales off the Big Island using land-based theodolite tracking due to concerns of impacts of increasing nearshore development. Results published in journal.

Cetos Research Organization, Underwater Studies of Humpbacks Whales Maui, HI (2003-present). Volunteer Marine Mammal Scientist for the non-profit Cetos Research Organization (www.cetosresearch.org). Conducted field studies from a large sailboat and from a small vessel under a scientific permit off Maui and Kauai, HI. Involved underwater videography including use of a hand-held underwater acoustic array to record humpback whale cow and calf behavior and vocalizations. Analyzed associated data and video and wrote field reports. Presented data at various conferences. Journal manuscript published in 2007.

Oceanic Society, Bahamas Spotted Dolphin Project. (1992). Assisted Ph.D. graduate student in collection of underwater videography and mobile hydrophone array system to study behavior and vocal communication of wild spotted dolphins near offshore reefs of the Bahamas from aboard a 60-ft live-aboard vessel.

National Marine Fisheries Service, Task Manager (1990). Jointly implemented, collected, and analyzed data on the behavioral response of bottlenose dolphins in and near the 1991 Mega Borg II oil spill off Galveston, TX, through aerial observations. Information was summarized in a National Marine Fisheries Service Report, presented at the 1990 Annual Information Transfer Meetings of the Minerals Management Service, at the 1991 Ninth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, and published in a scientific journal.

National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Field Research Consultant (1989). Subcontracted to assist in population assessment of southeast Alaska humpback whales in response to the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill through photo identification. Photographed whales from small vessels, developed and analyzed photographs.

Pacific Whale Foundation, Research Associate (1985-87) - Conducted and analyzed aerial- (strip transect), land-, and vessel-based research on the behavior and ecology of humpback whales in Australia and Hawaii. Responsible for coordinating daily research activities, supervising and instructing interns, and presenting public lectures and whale watches on the natural history of humpback whales.

Orca Survey/Earthwatch, Field Research Assistant, San Juan Island, WA (Summers 1987-88) - Assisted in long-term photo identification research of killer whales to monitor their individual histories and to detect changes in habitat use in Puget Sound, Washington, with Ken Balcomb, Whale Research Center. Instructed Earthwatch volunteers and operated small research vessels. Processed data and whale identification photographs, including cataloguing of individual whales.

Texas A&M University, Teaching Assistant/Laboratory Instructor (1988-91) - Organized and lectured laboratory sections of the following courses: Marine Mammal Biology, General Biology, Natural History of Vertebrates, Fundamentals of Ecology.

Texas A&M University, Graduate Research Assistant, Marine Mammal Research Program. (1988-91). Assisted Dr. Bernd Würsig of the Marine Mammal Research Program in logistics, data collection, analysis, and report writing for various projects involving bottlenose dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico bowhead whales in the Arctic and other projects.

University of Hawaii/Earthwatch, Volunteer Research Assistant (1985). Collected land- and vessel-based data pertaining to differential response of humpback whales to various underwater sounds in Hawaii.

Ocean Research and Education Society (1983). Student Research Assistant - Collected and analyzed data on humpback whale distribution and population ecology off western Greenland to assess viability of population to continued subsistence whaling. Funding for project provided by the International Whaling Commission; results published in journal of the same. Project PIs Ken Balcomb, Judy Perkins, George Nichols.

International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Gland, Switzerland (1983-84). Research Intern - Compiled and created an annotated bibliography on environmental protection and development for international data bank.


TERRESTRIAL RESOURCES EXPERIENCE

Plum Creek Timber Company and U.S. Forest Service, Plum Creek Land Exchange EIS, WA; Wildlife Task Lead - Involved in preparing wildlife section for third-party Environmental Impact Statement assessing effects of the exchange of more than 60,000 acres of land in the Cascade Mountains between Plum Creek Timber Company and the US Forest Service.

Federal Energy and Regulatory Commission, Destin Pipeline EIS, MS, Assistant Task Manager - Analyzed impacts of proposed construction of approximately 200 miles of offshore and onshore natural gas pipeline and meter station construction in the Gulf of Mexico and Mississippi on vegetation, fisheries, and terrestrial and marine wildlife, including threatened and endangered species.

Bonneville Power Administration, Upper Grande Ronde EA and BA/BE, OR, Task Leader/Lead Wildlife Scientist - Responsible for writing wildlife and vegetation sections for EA and BAIBE for proposed spring chinook salmon acclimation facilities in eastern Oregon. Involved consultation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Forest Service

Pacific Lumber Company, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, PALCO Headwaters Forest Land Exchange, Sustained Yield Plan, and Habitat Conservation Plan EIS/EIR, CA, Wildlife Task Lead - Involved in preparation of wildlife section for third-party Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report assessing effects of federal and state acquisition of large, privately owned redwood grove, and Sustained Yield Plan and Habitat Conservation Plan proposed by Pacific Lumber Company for management of more than 200,000 acres of forest lands in northern California.

Washington Department of Natural Resources, Summarization of Five Forestry-Related Habitat Conservation Plans in the Pacific Northwest, WA, Task Manager - Assimilated and summarized conservation and management strategies pertaining to key natural resource elements of five forestry-related Habitat Conservation plans in Washington and Oregon to facilitate comparison of these plans.

Northwest Pipeline Corporation, River Road Lateral and Meter Station Project, WA, Lead Wildlife Scientist – Assessed impacts of construction of 2.7 miles of a natural gas pipeline and a meter station near Vancouver, WA. Involved consultations with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Also prepared Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan and Spill Prevention, Containment, and Countermeasure Plan.

Stevens Pass Ski Resort, WA, Task Manager - Responsible for overseeing preparation of vegetation, riparian and wildlife sections of Environmental Assessment addressing impacts of expansion of ski resort in Cascade Mountains.

Northwest Pipeline Corporation, Various Sites, WA, Task Manager – Prepared BAs and conducted consultations with state and federal agencies with respect to potential impacts of various natural gas pipeline and meter station construction and maintenance projects on threatened and endangered animal and plant species in WA and OR. Projects included Roseburg Meter Station, Mosquito Lake Pipeline Replacement and Temporary Bypass, Camas-Eugene Odorizer Station, River Road Lateral and Meter Station, and others. Involved consultation with Federal and State agencies.

Bonneville Power Administration, Chehalis, Satsop, and Hermiston Cogeneration Facilities, WA, OR, Task Manager – Assessed potential impacts from proposed construction of three cogeneration facilities and associated gas pipelines on federal- and state-listed wildlife species. Conducted Section 7 consultations with USFWS. Addressed agency and public comments.

Hydro Energy Development Corporation, Big/Grade Creeks Hydroelectric Project, WA,  Field Director - Conducted spotted owl, marbled murrelet, and big game surveys designed to monitor wildlife habitat-use patterns relative to potential impacts associated with project construction. Organized and implemented field surveys, managed field personnel and logistics, managed database, and assisted in data interpretation and report preparation for FERC license application. Involved USFWS and Forest Service consultations.

Skykomish River Hydro, Martin Creek Hydroelectric Project, WA, Assistant Task Manager and Field Director – Responsible for mapping vegetation and evaluating habitat suitability for use by spotted owls and marbled murrelets in area potentially impacted by project implementation. Directed and participated in survey for spotted owls, marbled murrelets, and gray wolves. Assisted in writing FERC license application. Involved USFWS and U.S. Forest Service consultations.

Seattle City Light, 1996 Strategic Resource Plan EIS, WA, Discipline Lead – Assessed effects of potential energy sources relative to impacts on wildlife resources for EIS.

USDOE, Bonneville Power Administration, Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects Programmatic EA/BA, WA, Task Manager – Responsible for assessing impacts of various wildlife habitat mitigation projects on wildlife, including listed species, in areas of eastern WA affected by the construction of federal dams along the Columbia River.

Weyerhaeuser Company, Huckleberry Land Exchange EIS, WA, Assisting Biologist – Assisted in preparation of Wildlife Section of EIS assessing impacts on sensitive wildlife species from the exchange of approximately 38,000 acres of land between Forest Service and Weyerhaeuser Company. Prepared wildlife sections of associated Watershed Evaluations for six watersheds on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Coordination Act Reports, ID, Lead Wildlife Scientist – Prepared two USFWS Coordination Act reports for the Corps to assess potential impacts of streambank protection measures on wildlife in Idaho.

U.S. Navy Remedial Action Contracts, WA, AK, Lead Wildlife Scientist – Responsible for assessing potential impacts to and mitigation for wildlife relative to construction of a containment berm and recovery trench in Barrow, Alaska; and construction of a landfill cap and shoreline protection in WA and Adak Island, AK. Involved Section 7 Consultations with the USFWS and other agency consultations.

Ketchikan Public Utilities; Swan Lake - Lake Tyee Intertie Project EIS; AK, Discipline Lead - Responsible for preparation of the marine environment section of an EIS to assess potential impacts of construction of a transmission line and underwater cable on marine wildlife, including assessing effects of log-transfer facilities. Prepared project Biological Assessment/Evaluation.

Washington Natural Gas Co, WA, Task Manager - Prepared vegetation and wildlife sections of Environmental Report as part of FERC application for construction and expansion of natural gas storage and pipeline facilities.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan Fall Chinook Initiatives EA, WA, Lead Wildlife Scientist – Responsible for assessing potential effects on wildlife due to installing and operating juvenile salmon acclimation facilities at three sites on the Clearwater and Snake Rivers in WA.

Forest Service, Polk Inlet Timber Sale, AK, Assisting Biologist – Assisted in preparation of a BA/BE to assess potential impacts and mitigation measures relative to timber harvest activities in southeast AK.

Washington Department of Natural Resources, Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan, WA, Assisting Biologist – Assisted in preparation of a 1.6 million acre multi-species Habitat Conservation Plan for all WDNR forest lands in the range of the northern spotted owl.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Columbia and Snake River Interim Flow Improvement Measures SEIS, WA, Assisting Biologist – Assisted in preparation of wildlife sections for the supplemental EIS.

U.S. Forest Service, Marbled Murrelet Inventories, Olympic National Forest, WA, Field Director – Responsible for field management of marbled murrelet surveys in the Quinault Ranger District. Survey information was used to determine status of habitat use by marbled murrelets relative to timber sale areas. Responsible for managing field data collection, personnel, and logistics. Assisted in report writing and data analysis.

U.S. Forest Service, Upper Clearwater Valley Survey Project, Mt. Saint Helen's National Monument, WA, Field Biologist Assisted in second-growth research project that included establishing research plots, installing subplots, and conducting stand exams.

 

JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS (download links for some available at www.smulteasciences.com)

Smultea, M.A., and T.A. Jefferson. 2013 (Accepted Pending Revisions, 2013). Changes in Relative Occurrence of Cetaceans in the Southern California Bight: A Comparison of Recent Aerial Survey Results with Historical Data Sources. Submitted to Aquatic Mammals.

Smultea, M.A., Holst, M., Koski, W.R., Stoltz-Roi, S., Sayegh, A.J., Fossati, C., Goldstein, H.H., Beland, J., MacLean, S. and Yin, S. (In Press). Visual-acoustic survey of cetaceans during an academic seismic study in the southeast Caribbean Sea, April-June 2004. J. Carribean Research.

Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, K. Lomac-MacNair, F. Visser, J. Bredvik, and C. Johnson. (Accepted Pending Revisions, 2013). Rare mixed-species association between sperm whales, and Risso's and northern right whale dolphins off the Southern California Bight: Kleptoparasitism? Northwest Naturalist.

Packard J.M., K. E. Loonam, C.R. Arkenberg,  H. M. Boostrom, T. L. Cloutier, E. J. Enriquez, A. Eyres, H. Haefele,T. R. Salzar, M. A. Smultea, and K. Snodgrass.. (Accepted Pending Revisions, 2013). Behavioral assays for population planning.  Zoo Biology.

Smultea, M.A., A B. Douglas, C.E. Bacon, T.A. Jefferson, and L. Mazzuca. 2012. Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei/edeni) sightings in the Southern California Bight. Aquatic Mammals 38 (1) 2012.

Smultea, M., D. Fertl, D.J. Rugh, and C.E. Bacon. 2012. Summary of systematic bowhead surveys conducted in the U.S. Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1975-2009. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-237, 48 p. June 2012.

Smultea, M.A., T.A. Jefferson, and A.M. Zoidis. 2010. Rare Sightings of a Bryde’s Whale (Balaenoptera edeni) and Sei Whales (B. borealis) (Cetacea: Balaenopteridae) Northeast of Oahu. Pacific Science 64(3): 449-457.

Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, G.L. Fulling, and D. Fertl. 2008. An unusual reaction and other observations of sperm whales near fixed-wing aircraft. Gulf and Caribbean Research 20:75-80.

Zoidis, A.M., M.A. Smultea, A.S. Frankel, J.L. Hopkins, A.D. Whitt, and D. Fertl. 2008. Vocalizations produced by humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves recorded in Hawaii. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123(3):1737-1746.

Rankin. S., T.F. Norris, M.A. Smultea, C. Oedekoven, E. Silva, A.M. Zoidis, and J. Rivers. 2007. A visual sighting and acoustic detections of minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, in nearshore Hawaiian waters. Pacific Science.

Patenaude, N.J., W J. Richardson, M.A. Smultea, W.R. Koski, G.W. Miller, B. Würsig, and C.R. Greene, Jr. 2002. Aircraft sounds and disturbance to bowhead and beluga whales during spring migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Marine Mammal Science 18(2):309-335.

Mobley, J.R., M. Smultea, T. Norris, and D. Weller. 1996. Fin whale sighting north of Kauai’i, Hawaii. Pacific Science 50(2):230-233.

Smultea, M.A., and B. Würsig. 1995. Behavioral reactions of bottlenose dolphins to the Mega Borg II oil spill, Gulf of Mexico 1990. Aquatic Mammals 21.3:171-181.

Smultea, M.A. 1994. Segregation by humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) cows with a calf in coastal habitat near the island of Hawaii. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:805-811.

Acevedo, A., and M.A. Smultea. 1995. First records of humpback whales including calves at Golfo Dulce and Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, suggesting geographical overlap of northern and southern hemisphere populations. Marine Mammal Science 11(4).

Bowles, A.E., M.A. Smultea, B. Würsig, D. DeMaster, and D. Palka. 1994. Biological survey effort and findings from the Heard Island Feasibility Test 19 January - 3 February, 1991. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 96(4):2469-2484.

Silber, G.K. and M.A. Smultea. 1990. Harbor porpoises utilize tidally induced waves. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 89(3):139142.

Kaufman, G.D., M.A. Smultea, and P. Forestell. 1987. The use of lateral body coloration for photographic identification of east Australian (Area V) humpback whales. Cetus, Spring 1987.

Rowlett, R.A., G.A. Green, C.E. Bowlby, and M.A. Smultea. 1994. The first photographic documentation of a northern right whale off Washington State. Northwestern Naturalist 75:102-104.

Perkins, J.S., K.C. Balcomb, G. Nichols, Jr., A.T. Hall, M. Smultea and N. Thumser. 1985. Status of the West Greenland humpback whale feeding aggregation, 1981-1983. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 35:379383.

Smultea, M. 1989: Humpback whales off West Hawaii. Whalewatcher 23:11-14.

Jefferson, T.A., M.A. Smultea, and C.E. Bacon. 2013. (In review). Density and Abundance of Marine Mammals in the Southern California Bight from Aerial Surveys, 2008-2012. Submitted to Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences.

Holst, M., M.A. Smultea, W.R. Koski, A.J. Sayegh, G. Pavan, J. Beland, and H.H. Goldstein. (In review).  Cetacean Sightings and Acoustic Detections during a Seismic Survey off Pacific Central America, November–December 2004.  Submitted to Pacific Science.

Smultea, M.A., J. Brueggeman, D. Fertl, C.E. Bacon, R. Rowlett, G.A. Green, and F. Robertson. (In prep.). Behavior of polar bears near ice-breaking operations in the Chukchi Sea.

Bacon, C.E., M.A. Smultea, B. Würsig, C. Goertz, and S. Hawks-Johnson.  (In prep). Mixed-species associations in the Southern California Bight during Aerial Surveys, 2008-2012.

Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, B. Würsig, M. Moore, and V. James. (In prep). Whale and dolphin calf nursing and back riding: Observations from an aerial platform.

 

MARINE & TERRESTRIAL REPORTS

Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, S. Simpson, M. Blees and D. Steckler. 2013. Request for Incidental Harassment Authorization for the Non-Lethal Taking of Whales and Seals in Conjunction with a Proposed Marine 2D Seismic Program, Chukchi Sea, Alaska, 2013.  Prepared by Smultea Environmental Sciences. PO Box 256, Preston, WA 980950 and ASRC Energy Services,   Anchorage, AK. Prepared for TGS-NOPEC 2500 CityWest Boulevard, Suite 2000 Houston, TX 77042. Submitted to National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910.  April 2013.

Smultea, M.A., and C.E. Bacon. 2012. A comprehensive report of aerial marine mammal monitoring in the Southern California Range Complex: 2008-2012. Prepared for Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southwest (NAVFAC SW), EV5 Environmental, San Diego, 92132 under Contract No. N62470-10-D-3011 issued to HDR, Inc., San Diego, California.

Smultea, M.A., and C.E. Bacon. 2012. Aerial surveys of marine mammal/sea turtle presence and behavior from 28 March – 1 April 2012 in the SOCAL range complex, Post-Survey Summary Report. Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor, HI. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (NAVFAC), EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860-3134 under Contract No. N62470-10-D-3011-CTO XE07 issued to HDR, Inc., 9449 Balboa Avenue, Suite 210, San Diego, CA 92123-4342. April 2012.

Mobley, J.R., Jr., M.A. Smultea, C.E. Bacon, and A.S. Frankel. 2013. Final Report: Aerial Survey Monitoring for Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles in the Hawaii Range Complex--Summary of Focal Follow Analysis: 2008-12. Prepared for Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (NAVFAC), EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 96860-3134, under contract # N62470-10-D-3011, issued to HDR Inc., San Diego, California 92123.

Smultea, M.A., T. Norris, C. Bacon, and D. Steckler. 2012.  2012 Aerial surveys of marine mammal/sea turtle presence and behavior in the SOCAL range complex:  Density Survey 2 (March 13-15) and Sonobuoy-Behavior Monitoring (February 7-12, March 16, and April 2-3) Post-Survey Summary Report. Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor, HI. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (NAVFAC), EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860-3134 under Contract No. N62470-10-D-3011-CTO XE07 issued to HDR, Inc., 9449 Balboa Avenue, Suite 210, San Diego, CA 92123-4342. April 2012.

Smultea, M.A., C.E. Bacon, D. Fertl, and K. Ampela. 2011. Marine Mammal Monitoring for the U.S. Navy’s Hawaii Range Complex and Southern California Range Complex- Annual Report 2011, Department of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Fleet. Prepared by HDR, Inc., for Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (NAVFAC), EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI, 96860-3134.

Smultea, M. A., D. Fertl, D. J. Rugh, and C. Bacon. 2011. Summary of systematic bowhead surveys conducted in the U.S. Beaufort and Chukchi seas 1975-2008. Submitted to NMFS-NMML for BOWFEST project.

Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, J. Black, and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2011. Aerial surveys conducted in the SOCAL OPAREA from 01 August 2010 to 31 July 2011. Appendix B in Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, D. Fertl, and K. Ampela. 2011. Marine species monitoring for the U.S. Navy's Hawaii Range Complex and Southern California Range Complex - Annual Report 2011. Department of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, J. Black, and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2011. Aerial surveys conducted in the SOCAL OPAREA from 01 August 2010 to 31 July 2011. Appendix B in Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, D. Fertl, and K. Ampela. 2011. Marine species monitoring for the U.S. Navy's Hawaii Range Complex and Southern California Range Complex - Annual Report 2011. Department of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, and J. Black. 2011. Aerial Survey Marine Mammal Monitoring off Southern California in Conjunction with US Navy Major Training Events (MTE), July 27- August 3 and September 23-28, 2010 – Final Report, June 2011. Appendix B in Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, D. Fertl, and K. Ampela. 2011. Marine species monitoring for the U.S. Navy's Hawaii Range Complex and Southern California Range Complex - Annual Report 2011. Department of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Smultea, M. A., D. Fertl, D. Rugh, and C. Bacon. 2011. Summary of systematic bowhead surveys conducted in the U. S. Beaufort and Chukchi Seas 1975-2008. In NMML (National Marine Mammal Laboratory). Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) in the Western Beaufort Sea 2010 Annual Report. Prepared for Minerals Management Service, Anchorage, Alaska by National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Washington.

Smultea, M. A., and C. Bacon. 2011. Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Monitoring Video during Navy Training Events. Appendix B in Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, D. Fertl, and K. Ampela. 2011. Marine species monitoring for the U.S. Navy's Hawaii Range Complex and Southern California Range Complex - Annual Report 2011. Department of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Smultea, M.A., and C. Bacon. 2011. Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Monitoring Video during Navy Training Events, Final Report. Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor, HI. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (NAVFAC), EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860-3134, under Contract No. N62742-10-P-1818 issued to Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC. (SES), Issaquah, WA, 98027. Submitted August 2011.

Smultea, M. A., R. K. Merizan, C. E. Bacon, and J. S. D. Black. 2010. Aerial survey monitoring for marine mammals off Southern California in conjunction with US Navy major training events, July 27- August 3, 2010 - Draft report, September 2010. Appendix B in J. Rivers and C. Johnson. 2010. Marine mammal monitoring for the U.S. Navy's Hawaii Range Complex and Southern California Range Complex - Annual Report 2010. Department of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Smultea, M.A., R.K. Merizan, C.E. Bacon, and J.S.D. Black, 2010. Aerial Survey Monitoring for Marine Mammals off Southern California in Conjunction with US Navy Major Training Events, July 27- August 3, 2010 – Draft Report, September 2010. Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor, HI. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (NAVFAC), EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI, 96860-3134, under Contract No. N00244-10-C-0021 issued to University of California, San Diego, 7835 Trade St., San Diego, CA 92121, Submitted by Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC. (SES), Issaquah, WA, 98027, September 2010, under Purchase Order No: 10309963.

Smultea, M. A., K. Lomac-MacNair, C. E. Bacon, R. K. Merizan, and J. S. D. Black. 2010. Aerial survey monitoring for marine mammals off Southern California in conjunction with US Navy major training events, May 13-18, 2010 - Draft final report, August 2010. Appendix B in J. Rivers and C. Johnson. 2010. Marine mammal monitoring for the U.S. Navy's Hawaii Range Complex and Southern California Range Complex - Annual Report 2010. Department of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Fleet. 

Smultea, M.A., K. Lomac-MacNair, C.E. Bacon, R.K. Merizan, and J.S.D. Black. 2010. Aerial Survey Monitoring for Marine Mammals off Southern California in Conjunction with US Navy Major Training Events, May 13-18, 2010 – Draft Report, August 2010. Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet. Pearl Harbor, HI, Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (NAVFAC), EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI, 96860-3134, under Contract No. N62742-10-P-1816 issued to Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC. (SES), Issaquah, WA, 98027. Submitted August 2010.

Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, Jr., and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2009. Aerial Survey Monitoring for Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles in the Hawaii Range Complex in Conjunction with a Navy Training Event, SCC OPS August 16-30, 2009, Final Field Report. Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific (NAVFAC), EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI, 96860-3134, under Contract No. N62742-09-P-1966 issued to Marine Mammal Research Consultants (MMRC), Honolulu, HI, in collaboration with Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC. (SES), Issaquah, WA, August 2009.

Smultea, M.A. and J.R. Mobley, Jr. 2009. Aerial survey monitoring of marine mammals and sea turtles in conjunction with SCC OPS 08 training exercises off Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii, August 18-21, 2008 Field Summary Report. Final Report May 2009. Prepared by Marine Mammal Research Consultants, Honolulu, HI, and Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC., Issaquah, WA, under Contract No. N62742-08-P-1942 for Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific, EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI.

Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, Jr., and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2009a. Aerial survey monitoring for marine mammals and sea turtles in the Hawaii Range Complex in Conjunction with a Navy Training Event SCC OPS February 15 – 19, 2009 Final Field Report. Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet. Submitted by Marine Mammal Research Consultants, Honolulu, HI, and Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC., Issaquah, WA. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific, EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI, under Contract No.N62742-09-P-1956.

Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, Jr., and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2009b. Aerial survey monitoring for marine mammals and sea turtles in conjunction with US Navy major training events off San Diego, California, 15-21 October and 15-18 November 2008, Final Report. Prepared by Marine Mammal Research Consultants, Honolulu, HI, and Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC., Issaquah, WA, under Contract Nos. N62742-08-P-1936 and N62742-08-P-1938 for Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific, EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI

Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, Jr., and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2009c. Aerial survey monitoring for marine mammals off Southern California in conjunction with US Navy Major Training Events June 5 – 11 and July 20-29, 2009 Final Field Report. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific, EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI. Submitted by Marine Mammal Research Consultants, Honolulu, HI, and Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC., Issaquah, WA, under Contract No.28H-1087365 issued by California Institute of Technology (CalTech) via Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California San Diego.

Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, Jr., and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2009d. Aerial survey monitoring for marine mammals off southern California in conjunction with US Navy major training events June 5-11 and July 20-29, 2009 - Final Report. Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific, EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI. Submitted by Marine Mammal Research Consultants, Honolulu, HI, and Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC., Issaquah, WA, under Contract No. 28H-1087365 issued by California Institute of Technology (CalTech) via Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California San Diego.

Smultea, M.A. 2009. Preliminary list of systematic surveys involving bowhead whales in the U.S. Beaufort and Chukchi Seas 1975 – 2008. In BOWFEST Annual Report to the U.S. DOI Minerals Management Service submitted by National Marine Mammal Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA. Edited by D. Rugh, NMML. Prepared by Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC, Issaquah, WA.

Mobley, J.R., Jr., M.A. Smultea, and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2009. Aerial survey monitoring for marine mammals and sea turtles in conjunction with US Navy Training Events in the Hawaiian Range Complex June 17-25, 2009 Final Field Report.  Prepared for Commander, Pacific Fleet. Submitted by Marine Mammal Research Consultants, Honolulu, HI, and Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC., Issaquah, WA. Submitted to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific, EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI, under Contract No.28H-108736 issued by California Institute of Technology (CalTech) via Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California San Diego.

Smultea, M.A. 2008. Visual Survey for Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles in Conjunction with RIMPAC Navy Exercises off Kauai and Niihau, 12-17 July 2008, Final Field Summary Report. Prepared by Marine Mammal Research Consultants, Honolulu, HI, and Smultea Environmental Sciences, LLC., Issaquah, WA, under Contract No. N62742-08-P-1934 for Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific, EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI.

Smultea, M.A. and M. Holst. 2008. Marine mammal monitoring during a University of Texas Institute for Geophysics seismic survey in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, July 2008. Rep. TA4584-2. Rep. from LGL Ltd., King City, Ont., for Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Colum­bia Univ., Palisades, NY, and Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv., Silver Spring, MD. 81 p.

Smultea, M.A., J. Hopkins, and A.M. Zoidis. 2008. Final Field Summary Report,Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Monitoring Survey in Support of Navy Training Exercises in the Hawai’i Range Complex November 11-17, 2007. Prepared by: Cetos Research Organization, Bar Harbor, ME, under Contract No. N62742-07-P-1915, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific. EV2 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI, USA. Authors: Smultea, M.A., J.L. Hopkins, and A.M. Zoidis. January 30, 2008.

Smultea, M.A., J.L. Hayes, and A.M. Zoidis. 2007. Final Field Summary Report. Marine mammal visual survey in and near the Alenuihaha Channel and the Island of Hawai’i: Monitoring in support of Navy training exercises in the Hawai’i Range Complex, January 27 – February 2, 2007. Prepared by: Cetos Research Organization, Oakland, CA, under Contract No. N62742s-07-P-1895, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific, EV3 Environmental Planning, Pearl Harbor, HI, USA. Authors: Smultea, M.A., J.L. Hopkins, and A.M. Zoidis. March 5, 2007.

Smultea, M. A., W.R. Koski, and T.F. Norris 2005. Marine mammal monitoring during Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory’s marine seismic study of the Blanco Fracture Zone in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. October-November 2004. LGL Rep. TA2822-29. Rep from LGL Ltd. King City, Ont. Canada. for Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. Palisades, NY, and the National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD. 89p.

Smultea, M.A., M. Holst, W.R. Koski, and S. Stoltz. 2004. Marine mammal monitoring during Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory's Seismic Program in the Southeast Caribbean Sea and adjacent Atlantic Ocean, April-June 2004. LGL Report TA2822-26. Prepared for Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York and National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland by LGL Limited, King City, Ontario.

Smultea, M.A. and M. Holst. 2003. Marine mammal monitoring during Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory's seismic study in the Hess Deep area of the Eastern Equatorial Tropical Pacific, July 2003. LGL Report TA2822-16. Report from LGL Ltd., King City, Ontario, for Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, and National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland. 68 p.

Smultea, M.A., T.R. Kieckhefer, and A.E. Bowles. 1995. Response of humpback whales to an observation aircraft as observed from shore near Kauai, Hawaii, 1994. Report to the Marine Mammal Research Program (MMRP) of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climates Project (ATOC), Cornell University, Bioacoustics Department, Ithaca, NY. 46 pp.

Smultea, M.A., T.R. Kieckhefer, A.E. Bowles, and A.M. Zoidis. 1994. Results of tracking, behavioral observations, and scan sampling from North and South shore stations, Kauai 1993. Report to the Advisory Board of the Marine Mammal Research Program (MMRP) of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate Project (ATOC), Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. Presented to the ATOC-MMRP Advisory Board Meeting, Santa Cruz, California, 23 September 1994.

Smultea, M.A., T.R. Kieckhefer, and A. Frankel. 1994. Preliminary results of ATOC-MMRP shore-based observations of humpback whales including sightings of other marine mammals and sea turtles: Kauai 1994. Report to the Advisory Board of the Marine Mammal Research Program (MMRP) of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate Project (ATOC), Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. Presented to the ATOC-MMRP Advisory Board Meeting, Santa Cruz, California, 23 September 1994.

Smultea, M.A. and B. Würsig. 1992. Bottlenose dolphin reactions to the Mega Borg oil spill. Pages 90-119 in Research Planning, Inc. The Mega Borg oil spill: Fate and effects studies. Prepared for the Damage Assessment Center, NOAA, Rockville, Maryland, RPI/SR/92/4/1-2, 145 pp. + appendices.

Smultea, M.A. 1992. Habitat utilization patterns of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off the island of Hawaii. Final report to the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission in fulfillment of contracts T62239259 and T68109257. NTIS PB 92-182484.

Smultea, M.A. and B. Würsig. 1991. Bottlenose dolphin reactions to the Mega Borg oil spill, Gulf of Mexico, 1990. Final report no. RF-90-1113. Prepared for National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Center, Miami, Florida.

Norris, T.F., M.A. Smultea, S. Rankin, C. Loftus, C. Oedekoven, E. Silva, and A.M. Zoidis. 2005. A preliminary acoustic-visual survey of deep-water cetaceans around Niihau, Kauai, and portions of Oahu, Hawaii, February 2005. Cruise Report, R/V Dariabar, Cetos Research Organization Report. Submitted to Geo-Marine, Inc., and NAVFAC Pacific. Contract No. 2057SA-05F.

Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, Jr., J.S. Hanna, W.R. Koski, G.W. Miller, N.J. Patenaude, and M.A. Smultea. 1995. Acoustic effects of oil production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska, 1991 and 1994 phases: Sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of icebreaker noise. OCS Study MMS 95-0051. Minerals Management Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Holst, M., M.A. Smultea, W.R. Koski, and B. Haley. 2005. Marine mammal and sea turtle monitoring during Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory’s marine seismic program in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean off Central America, November-December 2004. LGL Report TA2822-30. Prepared by LGL Ltd. environmental research associates, King City, ONT, for Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, and NMFS, Silver Spring, MD. 125 p.

Norris, T.F., M.A. Smultea, A.M. Zoidis, S. Rankin, C. Loftus, C. Oedekoven, J.L. Hayes, and E. Silva. 2005. A preliminary acoustic-visual survey of cetaceans in deep waters around Niihau, Kauai, and portions of Oahu, Hawaii from aboard the R/V Dariabar February 2005. Final Technical and Cruise Report, July 2005. Prepared by Cetos Research Organization, Bar Harbor, ME. Contract #2057sa05-F to Geo-Marine, Inc. for NAVFAC Pacific. 9pp.

Holst, M., M.A. Smultea, W.R. Koski, and B. Haley. 2005. Marine mammal and sea turtle monitoring during Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory’s marine seismic program off the Northern Yucatán Peninsula in the Southern Gulf of Mexico, January-February 2005. LGL Report TA2822-31. Prepared by LGL Ltd. environmental research associates, King City, ONT, for Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, and NMFS, Silver Spring, MD. 96 p.

Green, G.A., R.A. Grotefendt, M.A. Smultea, C.E. Bowlby, and R.A. Rowlett. 1993. Delphinid aerial surveys in Oregon and Washington offshore waters. No. 50ABNF200058. Prepared for the National Marine Mammal Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Washington.

Bowles, A.E., M. Smultea, B. Würsig, D. DeMaster, and D. Palka. 1991. Biological survey effort and findings from the Heard Island Feasibility Test 19 January-3 February 1991. Report from Hubbs/Sea World Research Institute, San Diego, California for Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland. 102 p. Draft report, 28 October 1991.

Holst, M. and M.A. Smultea. 2008. Marine mammal monitoring and sea turtle monitoring during Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory’s marine seismic program off Central America, February – April 2008. LGL Rep. TA4243-3. Rep. from LGL Ltd., King City, Ont., for Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY, and Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv., Silver Spring, MD. 133 p.

Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, Jr., W.R. Koski, and M.A. Smultea. 1991. Acoustic effects of oil production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska, 1990 phase: Sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of continuous drilling noise from and ice platform, as studied in pack ice conditions. OCS Study MMS 91-0037. Minerals Management Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, Jr., W.R. Koski, C.I. Malme, G.W. Miller, M.A. Smultea, and B. Würsig. 1990. Acoustic effects of oil production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska 1989 phase: Sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of continuous drilling noise from and ice platform, as studied in pack ice conditions. OCS Study MMS 90-0017. Minerals Management Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Smultea, M.A. 1995. Biological Assessment Site 10 - Northend Landfill - Construction of landfill cap and shoreline protection system. Report to Naval Ordnance Center Pacific Division, Detachment Port Hadlock, Hadlock, Washington. Environmental Remediation Contract for Sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Alaska.

Fairbanks, R.L., and M.A. Smultea, 1995. Polk Inlet Timber Sale Biological Assessment and Biological Evaluation. Report to USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region.

Green, G.A., R.A. Grotefendt, M.A. Smultea, C.E. Bowlby, and R.A. Rowlett.  1993. Delphinid aerial surveys in Oregon and Washington offshore waters. Prepared for NOAA/NMFS National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Seattle, Washington.  51pp.

Brueggeman, J.J., G.A. Green, R.A. Grotefendt, M.A. Smultea, D.P. Volsen, R.A. Rowlett, C.C. Swanson, C.I. Malme, R. Mlawski, and J.J. Burns. 1992. 1991 Marine mammal monitoring program (seals). Shell E&P Inc. and Chevron U.S.A., Inc.

Hamer, T.E., K.A. Engel, M.A. Smultea, K. Barker, M.E. Clancy, S.G. Emory, and J.L. rude. 1992. Marbled Murrelet Survey results on the Quinault Ranger District, Olympia National Forest. Prepared for U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Final Report. Order No. 43-05G2-2-0617.

Brueggeman, J.J., R. Grotefendt, M. Smultea, G. Green, R. Rowlett, C. Swanson, D. Volsen, C. Bowlby, C. Malme, R. Mlawski, J. Burns. 1992. 1991 Walrus Monitoring Program at the Crackerjack and Diamond Prospects, Chukchi Sea. Ebasco Envtl. Rept. to Shell Western E&P Inc. and Chevron U.S.A., Inc.

Smultea, M.A. and B. Würsig. 1991. The reaction of bottlenose dolphins to the Mega Borg oil spill. 

Brueggeman, J.J., R.A. Grotefendt, M.A. Smultea, G.A. Green, R.A. Rowlett, C.C. Swanson, D.P. Volsen, C.E. Bowlby, C.I. Malme, R. Mlawski, and J.J. Burns. 1992. Marine mammal monitoring program (walrus and polar bear), Chukchi Sea 1991. Prepared for Shell Western E&P Inc. and Chevron U.S.A., Inc. Final Report.

Brueggeman, J.J., G.A. Green, R.A. Grotefendt, M.A. Smultea, D.P. Volsen, R.A. Rowlett, C.C. Swanson, C.I. Malme, R. Mlawski, and J.J. Burns. 1992. 1991 marine mammal monitoring program (seals and whales): Crackerjack and Diamond prospects, Chukchi, Sea. Prepared for Shell Western E&P Inc. and Chevron U.S.A., Inc. Final Report.

Bowles, A.E., M.A. Smultea, B. Würsig, D. DeMaster and D. Palka. 1991. Biological survey effort and findings from the Heard Island Feasibility Test 19 January 3 February, 1991. Prepared for the Office of Protected Species, Washington, D. C.

Brueggeman, J.J., R. Grotefendt, M. Smultea, J. Vulk and C. Malme. 1991. Marine Mammal monitoring program relative to seismic vessel operations in the Beaufort Sea, 1991. Prepared for Western Geophysical Company. Final Report.

Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, W.R. Koski and M.A. Smultea 1991. Acoustic effects of oil production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska 1990 phase: sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of continuous drilling noise from an ice platform as studied in pack ice conditions. Prepared for Minerals Management Service. Final Report. Contract No. 1412000130412. LGL Envtl. Res. Assoc. Report No. TA8485.

Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, W.R. Koski, C.I. Malme, G.W. Miller, M.A. Smultea and B.W. Würsig. 1990. Acoustic effects of oil production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska 1989 phase: sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of continuous drilling noise from an ice platform, as studied in pack ice conditions. Prepared for Minerals Management Service. Final Report. Contract No. 1412000130412. LGL Envtl. Res. Assoc Report No. TA8484.

 

CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS

Smultea, M. A., T. A. Jefferson, J. Black, K. Lomac-MacNair, and C. E. Bacon. 2011. Changes in Abundance, Density and Diversity of Marine Mammals in the Southern California Bight 1998-1999 vs. 2008-2010.  Poster presentation, Nineteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November – 2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida.

Mazzuca, L., M. A. Smultea, A. B. Douglas, and C. E. Bacon. 2011. Rare Sightings of Bryde’s Whales (Balaenoptera brydei/edeni) in the Southern California Bight. Poster presentation, Nineteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November – 2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida.

Moore, M., M. A. Smultea, C. E. Bacon, B. Würsig, and V. James. 2011. Got Milk? Aircraft Observations Provide Rare Glimpses into Whale Calf Nursing and Back Riding. Poster presentation, Nineteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November – 2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida.

Bacon, C. E., M. A. Smultea, B. Würsig, and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2011. Comparison of Blue and Fin Whale Behavior, Headings and Group Characteristics in the Southern California Bight during Summer and Fall 2008-2010. Poster presentation, Nineteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November – 2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida.

Lomac-MacNair, K., M. A. Smultea, C. E. Bacon, and M. Blees. 2011. Diurnal Behavior and Group Size Patterns of Common Dolphins (Delphinus sp.) during 2008-2010 Aerial Surveys off San Diego, California. Poster presentation, Nineteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 27 November – 2 December 2011. Tampa, Florida.

Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, J. Black, K. Lomac-MacNair, T. A. Jefferson, L. M. Mazucca, and R. Merizan. 2011. Aerial Surveys Conducted in Conjunction with US Navy Training Exercises off Southern California 2008- 2010. Abstract The Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop. 21- 22 January 2011. Newport Beach, California.

Smultea, M. A., K. Lomac-MacNair, J. R. Mobley, Jr., L. M. Mazucca, C. Bacon, and R. Merizan. 2010. Results of Aerial Surveys Conducted in Conjunction with US Navy Training Exercises off Southern California 2008-2010. Abstracts, The American Cetacean Society's 12th International Conference. 12-14 November 2010. Monterey, California.

Smultea, M. A., C. Bacon, and R. Merizan.  2010. Aerial Survey Monitoring for  Marine Mammals off Southern California in Conjunction  with US Navy Major Training Events 2008-2010.  PowerPoint Presentation to American Cetacean Society San Diego Chapter Monthly Meeting, Scripps' Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. July 2010.

Smultea, M. A., D. Fertl, D. J. Rugh and C. Bacon. 2010. History of Bowhead Surveys in the US Beaufort and Chukchi Seas~ 1975-2009. Poster presentation, Mini- Alaska Marine Science Symposium at the NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center. 16-17 February 2010. Seattle, Washington.

Smultea, M. A., J. Brueggeman, D. Fertl, G. A. Green, R. A. Rowlett and C. Bacon. 2010. Polar Bear Reactions to Icebreakers. Poster presentation, Alaska Marine Science Symposium. 18-22 January 2010. Anchorage, Alaska.

Smultea, M. A., D. Fertl, D. J. Rugh and C. Bacon. 2010. History of Bowhead Surveys in the US Beaufort and Chukchi Seas~ 1975-2009. Poster presentation, Alaska Marine Science Symposium. 18-22 January 2010. Anchorage, Alaska.

Smultea, M. A., K. Lomac-MacNair, J. R. Mobley, Jr., L. M. Mazucca, C. Bacon. 2010. Results of Aerial Surveys Conducted in Conjunction with US Navy Training Exercises off Souther California 2008/2009. Abstract/Poster presentation, The Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop. 9-10 January 2010. Newport Beach, California.

Smultea, M.A., L. Mazzuca, J. Mobley, Jr., and K. Lomac-MacNair. 2009. Feasibility of Aircraft-based Methodology to Monitor Cetacean Behavior in Conjunction with Navy Training Events Involving Mid-frequency Active Sonar. Abstracts, Eighteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 12-16 December 2009. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Smultea, M.A. and A.M. Zoidis. 2008. Behavioral context and function of humpback calf sounds on the Hawaiian wintering grounds. Abstracts, Second International Conference on Acoustic Communication by Animals. 12-15 August. Corvallis, Oregon.

Smultea, M.A., M. Holst, W.R. Koski, S. MacLean, A.J. Sayegh, C. Fossati, S. Stoltz, H.H. Goldstein, J. Beland, and S. Yin. 2005. Visual-acoustic survey of cetaceans during an academic seismic study in the southeast Caribbean Sea, April-June 2004. Abstracts, Sixteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 12-16 December. San Diego, California.

Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, and D. Fertl. 2001. Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) reactions to small fixed-wing aircraft. Abstracts, Fourteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, 28 November-3 December. Vancouver, British Columbia.

Smultea, M.A., J.R. Mobley, and D. Fertl. 2000. Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) responses to a fixed-wing aircraft. Abstracts, American Cetacean Society: Whales 2000 Conference. 17-19 November. Monterey, California.

Smultea, M.A., W.R. Koski, G.W. Miller, W.J. Richardson, C.R. Greene, Jr. 1999. Reactions of seals to underwater playbacks of drilling and icebreaker noise in the Alaskan Beaufort. Abstracts, Eleventh Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 28 November-3 December. Wailea, Maui.

Smultea, M.A., T.R. Kieckhefer, and A.E. Bowles. 1995. Response of humpback whales to an observation plane as observed from shore near Kauai, Hawaii, 1994. Abstracts, Eleventh Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 14-18 December. Orlando, Florida.

Smultea, M.A. and E. Purcell. 1989. Habitat utilization patterns of humpback whales off West Hawaii. Abstracts, Eighth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 7-11 December. Pacific Grove, California.
Smultea, M.A. T.R. Kieckhefer, A.M. Zoidis, and A.E. Bowles. 1993. Baseline behavior of humpback whales near Kauai, Hawaii. Abstracts, Tenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 11-15 November. Galveston, Texas.

Smultea, M.A. and B. Würsig. 1991. Bottlenose dolphin reactions to an oil spill off Texas. Abstracts, Ninth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 5-9 December. Chicago, Illinois.

Zoidis, A.M., M.A. Smultea, A.S. Frankel, J.L. Hayes, A.J. Day, S.A. McFarland, A.D. Whitt, and D. Fertl. 2007. Sounds attributed to a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calf verified by a two-element array. Abstracts, Seventeenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 29 November 29-3 December. Cape Town, South Africa.

Holst, M., W.J. Richardson, W.R. Koski, M.A. Smultea, B. Haley, M.W. Fitzgerald, and M. Rawson. 2006. Effects of large- and small-source seismic surveys on marine mammals and sea turtles. Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 87(36), Joint Assembly Supplement, Abstract OS42A-01. 23-26 May. Baltimore, Maryland.

Holst, M., W.J. Richardson, W.R. Koski, M.A. Smultea, B. Haley, M.W. Fitzgerald, and M. Rawson. 2006. Effects of large- and small-source seismic surveys on marine mammals and sea turtles. Abstracts, 2006 Ocean Sciences Meeting. 20-24 February. Honolulu, Hawaii.

Norris, T.F, M.A. Smultea, A.M. Zoidis, S. Rankin, J.L. Hayes, and E. Silva. 2006. Acoustic-visual surveys of cetaceans in Hawaiian waters reveal new information about pelagic species. Abstracts, 2006 Ocean Sciences Meeting. 20-24 February. Honolulu, Hawaii.

Holst, M., M.A. Smultea, A.J. Sayegh, G. Pavan, H.H. Goldstein, and J. Beland. 2005. Occurrences of cetaceans during shipboard surveys in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean during Central America, November-December 2004. Abstracts, Sixteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 12-16 December. San Diego, California.

Norris, T.F., M.A. Smultea, A.M. Zoidis, S. Rankin, C. Oedekoven, C. Loftus, J. Hayes, and E. Silva. 2005. Hear me, see me: An acoustic and visual survey of deep-water cetaceans in Hawaiian waters. Abstracts, Sixteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 12-16 December. San Diego, California.

Richardson, W.J., M. Holst, W.R. Koski, M.A. Smultea, B. Haley, and M. Rawson. 2005. Responses of marine mammals to seismic surveys by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Abstracts, Sixteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 12-16 December. San Diego, California.

Zoidis, A.M., M.A. Smultea, D. Fertl, A.J. Day, D. DenDanto, A.S. Ertl, J. Hayes, and A.D. Whitt. 2005. Can you hear me now? Social sounds and underwater behaviors of Hawaiian humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves. Abstracts, Sixteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 12-16 December. San Diego, California.

Richardson W.J., M. Holst, W.R. Koski, M.A. Smultea, and M. Rawson. 2004. Marine mammal monitoring and mitigation during recent seismic surveys for geophysical research. Abstracts, International Workshop: Policy on Sound and Marine Mammals. (Workshop sponsored by Marine Mammal Commission in partnership with Joint Nature Conservation Committee). 28-30 September. London, England.

Frankel, A.S., M.A. Smultea, C.M. Gabriele, T.R. Kieckhefer, and C.W. Clark. 1995. Humpback whale behavior and vessel effects from the 1994 Hawai'i shore-based ATOC baseline study. Abstracts, Eleventh Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 14-18 December. Orlando, Florida.

Greene, C.R., W.J. Richardson, and M.A. Smultea. 1993. Underwater sounds from helicopter and airplane flights over pack ice and reactions of spring-migrating bowhead whales. Abstracts, Tenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 11-15 November. Galveston, Texas.

Grotefendt, R., J. Brueggeman, C. Green, C.E. Bowlby, M.A. Smultea, R. Rowlett, and C. Hossell. 1993. Comparison of visual versus photographic counts of walrus group size. Abstracts, Tenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 11-15 November. Galveston, Texas.

Forestell, P.H., J.R. Mobley, Jr., R. Grotefendt, E.K. Brown, T. Norris, and M. Smultea. 1993. Observations of odontocetes during aerial surveys in Hawaii: 1993. Abstracts, Tenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 11-15 November. Galveston, Texas.

Mobley, Jr., J.R., P.H. Forestell, R. Grotefendt, E. Brown, A. Bowles, T. Norris, and M. Smultea. 1993. Aerial surveys of humpback whales wintering in Hawaiian waters: 1993 results. Abstracts, Tenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 11-15 November. Galveston, Texas.

Rowlett, R.A., M.A. Smultea, J. Brueggeman, G.A. Green, C.C. Swanson, R.A. Grotefendt, D.P. Volsen, and J.J. Burns. 1993. Polar bear reactions to icebreaker operations associated with offshore drilling explorations. Abstracts, Tenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 11-15 November, Galveston, Texas.

Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, Jr., W.R. Koski, M.A. Smultea, and B. Würsig. 1991. Reactions of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, to playbacks of drilling platform noise during spring migration in pack ice. Abstracts, Ninth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 5-9 December, Chicago, Illinois.

Bowles, A.E., M. Smultea, B. Würsig, D.P. DeMaster, and D. Palka. 1991. Observations on the relative abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to transmissions from the Heard Island Feasibility Test. Abstracts, Ninth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 5-9 December. Chicago, Illinois.

 

 

 

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