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Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Crustacea
Class Remipedia
Order Nectiopoda
Family Speleonectidae

Speleonectes parabenjamini Koenemann, Iliffe & van der Ham, 2003

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Speleonectes parabenjamini

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Speleonectes parabenjamini after Koenemann et al., 2003

Taxonomic Characterization: A relatively small species composed of 24 postcephalic segments; pleural tergites well developed, broadly rounded, becoming increasingly pointed in posterior part of trunk; trunk sternites with pointed posterolateral corners; sternal bars heteromorphic; frontal filaments with short, stout processes; antennules with long dorsal flagella; segment 4 of maxillule subrectangular, bearing 1 very long, serrate spine and several slender setae; maxillulary claw very long; maxilla and maxilliped slender, without distinct tagmosis (segments on either side of the elbow are subequal in width and length), setation sparse; arc of horseshoe-type claw composed of 7-8 small denticles; anal somite longer than wide; caudal rami shorter than anal somite (Koenemann et al., 2003).

Ecological Classification: Stygobitic

Size: Adult length extends to 13 mm.

Number of Species in Genus: Nine, all stygobitic

Genus Range:

  • Bahamas:
    • Abaco: S. lucayensis Yager, 1981; S. benjamini Yager, 1987
    • Andros: S. lucayensis Yager, 1981
    • Cat: S. lucayensis Yager, 1981
    • Exumas: S. tanumekes Koenemann, Iliffe & van der Ham, 2003; S. parabenjamini Koenemann, Iliffe & van der Ham, 2003; S. minnsi Koenemann, Iliffe & van der Ham, 2003
      • Basil Minns Blue Hole (Koenemann, Iliffe & van der Ham, 2003)
    • Grand Bahama Island: S. lucayensis Yager, 1981; S. benjamini Yager, 1987
      • Lucayan Caverns (Yager, 1981)
    • San Salvador: S. epilimnius Yager & Carpenter, 1999
      • Major's Cave (Yager & Carpenter, 1999; Carpenter, 1999)
  • Canary Islands:
    • Lanzarote: S. ondinae (Garcia-Valdecasas, 1985)
      • Atlantida Tunnel - Jameos del Agua (Garcia-Valdecasas, 1985)
  • Cuba: S. gironensis Yager, 1994
  • Yucatan Peninsula: S. tulumensis Yager, 1987

Species Range: Know only from Basil Minns Blue Hole, Great Exuma Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas.

Closest Related Species: As the name implies, S. parabenjamini is morphologically closely allied with S. benjamini from Abaco.

Habitat: Anchialine limestone caves

Ecology: S. parabenjamini was collected from below a hydrogen sulfide layer in 33-43 m depths of an isolated, collapse, dome room located several hundred meters into the cave from the surface entrance.  In the depth range in which remipedes were collected, salinity was about 34 ppt, temperature 25oC, pH 7.4 and dissolved oxygen 3 mg/l.  Three new species of Speleonectes were collected from this cave including S. tanumekes, S. parabenjamini and S. minnsiHowever, the sympatry of these three species is not exceptional for remipedes as several other instances of 2-3 sympatric species have been observed. Sympatric remipedes are likely to be subjected to strong competition, which could lead either to niche differentiation or competitive exclusion.  S. tanumekes appears to be the most abundant remipede in this cave. Other stygobitic fauna from this cave includes copepods, ostracods, leptostracans, bochusaceans, amphipods, thermosbaenaceans, mysids, and polychaetes (Koenemann et al., 2003).

Life History: The fact that remipedes are hermaphrodites may point towards an adaptation to small population size (Koenemann et al., 2003).

Evolutionary Origins: Remipedes are an ancient group of crustaceans sharing several well defined features with Tesnusocaris goldichi from the Carboniferous.  The current distribution of remipedes consists of a prominent cluster in the northern Caribbean including the Bahamas.  Whether this cluster is an ancient center of origin and the disjunct taxa in the Canary Islands and Western Australia are isolated relicts remains to be seen (Koenemann et al., 2003).

Conservation Status: Known only from one anchialine cave on Great Exuma Island.


  • Koenemann, S., T.M. Iliffe and J. van der Ham, 2003. Three new sympatric species of Remipedia (Crustacea) from Great Exuma Island, Bahamas. Contributions to Zoology, 72(4):227-252.
  • Yager, J. 1981. Remipedia, a new class of Crustacea from a marine cave in the Bahamas. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 1(3):328-333, 2 figures.
  • Yager, J. 1994. Remipedia. Pp. 87-90 in: Encyclopaedia Biospeologica, Vol. 1, V. Decu and C. Juberthie, eds., Society of Biospeleology, Paris, 880 pp., 3 figures, 1 plate, 1 table.
  • Yager, J. and J.H. Carpenter. 1999. Speleonectes epilimnius new species (Remipedia, Speleonectidae) from surface water of an anchialine cave on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Crustaceana, 72(8): 965-977, 6 figures, 1 table.


Contributor: Stefan Koenemann, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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