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Phylum Chaetognatha
Class Sagittoidea
Family Spadellidae

Paraspadella anops Bowman & Bieri, 1984

Taxonomic Characterization:
Lacks eyes and body pigmentation. Paired adhesive organs inserted ventrally at the posterior third of tail, each with four slender fingers. Fingers longitudinally striated. 10 grasping spines on each side, each with a tip set off by suture. Lacks posterior teeth.

Ecological Classification: Stygobitic

Size: Total length, excluding tail fin, 3.55 mm.

Number of Species in Genus: Ten

Genus Range:

  • Bahamas:
    • Grand Bahama Island: Paraspadella anops Bowman & Bieri, 1984
      • Sagittarius Cave on Sweeting's Cay (Bowman & Bieri, 1984)
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Paraspadella anops: species range

Species Range: Known only in Sagittarius Cave, Sweeting's Cay, Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas

Closest Related Species: Paraspadella schizoptera (Conant, 1895)

Habitat: Anchialine limestone cave

Ecology: Found swimming more than 100 m inside cave from the surface entrance in fully marine salinity water (35 g/l).

Life History: Only a single specimen was collected.

Evolutionary Origins: Species in the genus Paraspadella are restricted to the warm and temperate neritic waters.

Conservation Status: Restricted to a single cave


  • Bowman, T. and R. Bieri. 1989. Paraspadella anops, a new species, from Sagittarius Cave, Grand Bahama Island, the second troglobitic chaetognath. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 102:586-589, 3 figures.

Contributor: Jean-Paul Casanova, Univerisite de Provence, Marseille, France

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